SCEWC18 - Inclusive and Sharing Cities - Sharing and Collaborative Economy 2018/11/13
Quan: des de 13-novembre-2018 fins a 13-novembre-2018 · Hora: 12:45 - 14:45· On: Smart City Expo World Congress. Sala "Inclusive and Sharing Cities" · (mapa) · Llengua: en-anglès Organitza: Ajuntament de Barcelona, Dimmons UOCHashtag:#ShareBcn2018_Xarxes socials: @sharebcn2018
The third edition of the Sharing Cities Summit will take place in Barcelona 12-15 of November 2018. It follows the previous edition of the Sharing City Summit held in 2017 in NYC, and in 2016 in Amsterdam. The event will gather Mayors and Deputy Mayors from leading cities from around the world, and actors of the sharing ecosystem, to discuss how the continuous growth of sharing economies impacts the life and economic development of the cities. The participants will consider what innovative measures can be taken to meet the challenges and opportunities we face, such as how to differentiate between digital platforms, based on the model of collaboration of its users that is applied. This year’s Summit will focus on defining a “Declaration of principles and commitments for a Sharing City”, and will stimulate concrete collaboration between cities.
After the Mayors encounter, on 12 November there will be a public event in the evening. On 13, 14 and 15 November, a part of this year’s Smart City Expo World Congress (SCEWC18), there will be topic at the congress dedicated to “Inclusive and Shared Cities“
The talks and debates of the summit are documented through collaborative reporting to Teixidora.
“… The platform economy (also known as sharing or collaborative economy) has expanded into most areas of activity (such as mobility, housing, or education), becoming the emerging model of production. It is growing economically rapidly and exponentially, creating great public interest, but also controversies. How to assess platform economy sustainability? How cities are addressing collaborative economy, and the potential of sharing platforms for public innovation? . This thematic programme is connected to the celebration of the Sharing Cities Summit.
- Chair: Mayo Fuster Morell (Internet Interdisciplinary Institute ot the Open University of Catalonia)
- Keynote: Juliet Schor (Boston College): Does platform economy increase or help to reduce economic inequalities
- Keynote: Mark Graham (University of Oxford)
- Panel Presentation:
- Tom Llewellyn (Strategic Partnerships Director Shareable)
- Udo Kock (Deputy Mayor for Finance, Economic Affairs, and Zuidas City of Amsterdam)
- Cristina Tajani (Councillor for Labour Policies, Economic Development, Commerce and Human Resources City of Milan)
- Carlos Moreno (The Mayor of Paris Special Envoy for Smart Cities City of Paris)
Documentació d'aquesta sessió
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SCEWC18 - Inclusive and Sharing Cities - Sharing and Collaborative Economy
Share Barcelona 2018 - Sharing Cities Summit - 12-15 November 2018
Collaborative notes to be transferred to Teixidora.net, documentation to share and reuse.
Does Platform Economy Increase or Help to Reduce Economic Inequalities?
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(Conference notes in chronological order)
13:00 – 16:00 Sharing Cities. Sharing and Collaborative Economy
13:00 - 13:45 Presentation of the Sharing Cities Declaration
Gerardo Pisarello :
barcelona as a city is proud to host such an important meeting will be crucil forthe future of urban reality
special tahnks to Amsterdam and Nyc
42 cities of the whole world to present publicly this declration of principles
basic goal : work jointly to enjoy the opportunities of these platforms and regulate clearly when these platforms can have a negative effects
It is not by chance that Barcelona is leading this summit, global phenomenon, in cities where the impacts are the strongest. Plural and diverse world
to promote models that can have positive impacts and regulate those with a negative one
we have been firm when regulating, for example working with airbnb and uber to avoid that thes eplatforms could damage us or be unfair competition
our aim is to develop a joint startegu between different cities to understand these phenomena
2 principles that are particularly important :
- city soverigntey to intevene in these quetsions , cities are on the first line that receive the impacts and that work with the citizens. we wish these principles would be reocgnized bu the European Union. In the meantime, that cities have elements to be able to establish playing rules.
To keep on work with coordination and make changes . what we mant to do is "municipal unionism" to promote this. In the same way we have promoted alliances to fight global warming or housing rights, we have are now launching the declaration.
Thank you to all the cities that made this encounter possible.
Udo Kock :
honour for me to be here, amsterdam hosted the first summit . Great achievemnt. Just a few remarks
I think this alliance of cities , there a few perspectives that are always heard: perspestive of the workers, these disruptive activites they are disruptive for workers, our ole as governement to adress that and defend thir rights.
There is the perspective of us cities. We have to deal with these issues but we don't always have the tools, the legal mean to address these issues. We need to lobby national governments to give us these tools.
The other perspective of consumers, could get more attention. Comapnies entering tese markets, their objetcive is to make a profit but also to provide a good sevrice. keep that perpspective into account.
Perspective of platforms, feel thet they are being overegulated. We set the rules, .
Are we welcome in your city? Yes you are as long as you stick to the rules. You are welcome
challenge to strike balance between regulation (kill ninnovation) and if you don't regumate tou get the innovation that you don't wnat.
Alliance helps us, comples issues; how do you deal with AIRBNB? with UBER? companies have so many legal means, that are always TRYING TO FIND WAYS TO GO AROUND REGULATION.
Deputy Mayor Milan
We believe that the declaration we are presenting today is just the first step in a long path we are on these years.
emphasis on principle related to work and worker's right. we believe that cities must contribute to building conditions to workers on digital platforms to be garanteed in terms of wages, saftey, securty and social protection.
Digital platforms must be a key factor of dynamism and economic development in our cities and not a precarious one.
finally let me say thatI believe that our commonaction could also suggest regulations, indications, public polciies to the national government level . Assure out network continuity in our common path. Cities can do more together than national states?
Mayo talks about the program happening next at congress and stand. Taskforce of the declaration, so just the start.
14:00 . 14:05 Chair: Mayo Fuster Morell (Internet Interdisciplinary Institute ot the Open University of Catalonia)
Approach to adresse the challenges and oppotunities
forms of production between communities of people emerged with the inetrnet, frst with open source then we have wikipedia. We have been seeing how far this modality of production supported by a digital platform has been expanding to almost every area of actvitiy
14 areas 32 areas this yea: in two years, areas doubled
for the immaterial, we have seen move into open design, management of public spaces, collaborative taking care of kids being supported by digital platforms. Ibiqutitous mode of production. Cities rae concentrating this ativity, impact happens in cities, creates challenges and opportunities
modalities of collaborative production : sommobilitat, moodle or wikiloc: responsible model on scale not seen before.
To eb able to have criteria of differentiation of these modalities : with dimmons we have developed a study. The study is in book, on basis of analysis of 100platforms, p2P , collaboratibe governance or doesnt involve users
not model good or bad prosocial vs predators of dynamics of city.
The summit yesterday :5à cities ended up in declaration on how to adress these common challenges and oppotunities and this common view.
14:05 - 14:55 Panel Presentation: Sharing and Collaborative Economy
Tom Llewellyn (Strategic Partnerships Director Shareable)
Udo Kock (Deputy Mayor for Finance, Economic Affairs, and Zuidas City of Amsterdam)
Cristina Tajani (Councillor for Labour Policies, Economic Development, Commerce and Human Resources City of Milan)
Carlos Moreno (The Mayor of Paris’ Special Envoy for Smart Cities, City of Paris)
I think local governments when we think about the sharing eocnomy we usally find ourselves almost constantly dealing ith the negative external effects of the sharing economy, on workers, on social cohesion, on what it does for the environment. That's good, our job is about dealing with negative effects of all sorts. But they have a lot of psotivie effects; not only from innovation perspective but rom an socialinclsion perspective .
Example from amsterdam: Meal-sharing platform. Residents cook meals at home, put it online, you can buy it online and go pick it up. Platform to bring supply and demand together. We've USED PLATFORM TO SEE IF WE COULD INTEGRATE PEOPLE WITH LOW INCOME, NOT DIGITALLY EDUCATED, to bring them into the platform. We gave a subsidy with people with a citypass, five euro discount for homecooking platform, huge success, the nice thing is that the people who used the discount, they still dit that once a while and hiomecook stayed in touch the poeple, and imporved the cohesion in the neighborhood. A lot of psoitive facts, we as governments can stimulate, we should try to enhance them.
Today anniversary of terrorist attacks in Paris 3 years ago, many poeple die. The city is alive. 3 years ago I said at the smart city expo :
when i dissucss about sharing cities, i discuss about life in cities, people occupied streets after
fluctuat necmergitur: resilience for participative cities
today discuss about future of sharing cities, how can paris can become a sharing city? Paris is a global city, we live in an interconnected world. Our strategy based on 3 pillars :
-the connected cities
- the open city
-the sustainable city
2 days ago, IPCC has published about the 1,5°, the citizens today are very serious. How cqn we survive in some decqdes when we can obeserve climqte change. From COP21 until todqy our most importnt vector, fight against climate change and preserve democracy. . Reinventing commons : important battle for cities. Without them can't developed any form of city.
What are the commons?
- the air
- the water
- the shade
century of cities and tehcnological disruption : time of massive ubiquity. If we want to identify new commons:
- the time, we live in hectic cities
-silence :constantly connected
How to reinvent commons to achive low-carbon city. Understand cities' stakeholders and all kid of scetors involved. Urban metabolism if you want to develop a roadmap. Our roadmap is based on fighting against climate change., to develop powerful eco system of inovation, reislianc ena dnew urban culture. Most important target, not newmobility, not disrutpion of tehcnology, not development of sensors, but to improve quality of life of citizens. For that we have banned cars from river banks. After long battle we have obtained to banned diesel from right bank to seine river in order to give parisians a new urban park. Important nvolvement to rpoose public space for all, for fresh air. Currently redisigning the 7 incnic squares, important transformation to redesign the quares for pedestrians and bike. Digital platforms supports cooperative efforst: coop cycle. transform Model of deliveroo to provide multiservices in cities. Powerful program of made in Pairs : urban district of innovation in former railway station Halle Freussinet, and for citizens participatory budgeting. nIGHT OF SOLIDARITY /COLLECT DATA TO IDENTIFY THE HOMELESS in cities, building a digital map in order to open town hall to host this winter to host homeless in public building. Next step olympic games in 2024, based on circular eocnomy, 20% of all contracts will be based on social inclsion, social innovative enconomy, with the help of Mohammed Yunus.
Cristina Tajani :
Milan : top city in italy for platform services and co-working, strong investment in mobility service in sharing. Majority of platforms based in Milano. In 2013 launched public consultation on sharing economy guidelines, in 2014 apporved by city counil. Reality coheent xith the declration. Since 2015 mapping sharing eocomy players and operators. Guidelines and principles : approach similar to the today's declration: generate shared values, encourage coopretaion, improve quality of life, sustain accessible and inclusive platforms, support any experience that repsect local laws and promote promote and create networks. optimize ressources, promote open etchnologies, transparency and standards of confidentiality are up to tehcnological standards.
Muncipality develop action plan, stregenthen link between collabortve business and citizens, become ealry adopter of services in public competition procedures.
Coping with case of food delivery : increase of the phenomenon , number of platforms operating in the city high. challenge with spreand of phenomene and workers right. self-employed or employee? algotithms used for duration fo work, amount of pay and wages. specific issues regarding customers : lack of food hygiene reglamentation.
city of milan has set up a negotiating platform with delivery platform, opened a rider's poitn offering information about workplace safety and demanded sovial investigation to collect data on woker's conditions.
what cities can do together: collect and share data imapct on work conditions, buildlocal alliance between platforms, city, workers and citizens , devine a common standard, and coordinate actiosn
Policies for sharing cities : what fills a need in
shareable: been around since 2009, emporwering communities to share arund the world: we have helped catalyze, see adotpion and proliferation of sharing economy. how can cities engage? share SF 100 policy makers, social enterprise, non-profits : how can we amplify the city of Sf as a platform for sharing. Commons: root of sharing citieS. all cities are fundamentally sharing enteprises. Now many cities and research and activism around sharing cities. as cocnept became wall received : look for deeper definitio of sharing cities : need for good policies in fats changing eveinvoment and fear as sharing cities would be coopeted as sharing eocnomy wa scoopted. Book : sharing cities : easy to get stuck on challenges : triple crises of equity, sustanibility and
many peopel working of projects and initatives showing there are wayd to move forward : to replicated. cOLLECTED EXAMPLES on power on sharing
challenge : 3 years ago, working group in bologna on urban commons . During the memting, many ideas came out, challenged to leave with rpincipls : provide context for evrything else . Not a single city no one siez fit all deifnition, fight back against homogeny, sharing city :a spirational at its core : aspire to be better, work toards something more : sharing cities should pritorite transformation rather than transaction, work togteher, replication not just scale : all local based initative s: more resilient than if one big corporation , support private surffiency and civ abundance. cities with shared tehcnology stack
cosmo-localiszation achieving scale whiel building solidarity. Goal : solidarity work for common goal
celebrate and e levate what already works , replicate and priotize challenges of out time .
Mayo : what role of muncipality in sharing cities? point role of citizens. is sharing cities should be only muncialities or all actors.
kock : initaitves not taken by government , my exmaple based on private initiative. GOVERNMENTs : not too initative : communites, market will do that. our role : keep and eye on peopel taht are not part of it, always people left behind, they are based on ethcnoloyg, social network. our first role is to keep an eye on those who can't particpate. 2nd role : to regulate in a smart way : delicate whn you overegulate you do more harm than good : wait and see first, don't be afraid, try to cooperate, work with these companies
Tom : when cities give away powr back to communities very poweful, can help provision to core city servcies,
carlos beyond role of control : city as platform: offer the city to develop experimentation, to promote new services, new economic model : how cna we support private companies : not monopolistic situation of public services but to combine with companies, coops, association.
Tajani : expriencing the power of soft power : be an actor that regulates not imposes direction in top-down approach, nudging in the direction to preserve common good and general interest.
14:55 - 15:25 Networking Break
15:25 - 15:40 Keynote: Juliet Schor (Boston College): Does platform economy increase or help to reduce economic inequalities?
Two major challenges for cities : climate change and meeting ambitious targets . Ipcc reports at city level we're seeing something diffrent : responsible for large volume of emission any kind of innovation with cities has to take climate chnage at the core
what about the sharing eocnomy? introduced with claims to solve both these issues. platforms like uber, airbnb laucnhed with a discourse like that : big part of what attarcted people to these platfroms. Talked to earlist users and many referenced ecological benfefits. also adveritesed that they have open acces, pootunity for everyone, that they are supporting the middle calass and reduce walth ineqality and increase social ties : airbnb and ridehailing platforms
and improving eocnomic efficiency
research found contrary results : not automatic features
began in 2011 : sorry (?) of acses: timebank, food swap, makerspace, , turo taskrabbit, skilshare, lyft, uber, postmates, favor, stocksy
does it disrupt inequality?
ad from airbnb
race and class inequality : expandin oppotunity for privilege while providing less opportunity for lower incomeand PoC
RACIAL inequality on AIrbnb : reproducing inequality.
Revevenue : how does it difffer by race : data scrapped from around 10 major cities
Looking at neighborhoods : white /all non-white (prediction of the model) : predicted :
W : 7 N_w : 10 more likely
what happends lower prices and annual revenu lower : racial discrimination against hosts
Studies on discrimination on guests
public reputaion systems do not elimnaite racial preferences (won't discriminate bacause of race given the ratings) but reproduce them : many hosts never get booked and more likely to get a lower rating problematic on sites wher epeople only book if ratings are perfect
Gnetrification : important rent gaps contributing to gentrification
insider/outsider conflicts structure lodging inequalities.
320 interviews for multiplatfrom study . EQducated people from middle class do jobs traditionally do jobs done by people from lower economic background. because the apps came with groovy technology and modern technology and siscourse of common good, these people felt less of a stigma doing these jobs. In context of 2008 eocnomic crises
in bottom of 80% , upward movement within that bottom
what about environmental impacts? airbnb claims , platforms created a discourse of eco-benefits (thomas friedman) :producing fewer hotels
us national survey : 2/3 of americans said it was good. forgot : people will buy more of it oif cheaper
On ridesharing and airbnb : it seems pretyy clear than impacts that have been negative : big increase of vehicles, poeple take more trips : studies so far negative
impact of airbnb : more flights
increases access of carbon intensive activities
zipcar : hgher carbon footprint
durable goods borrowing plqtforms qnd renting plqtforms : hqve collqpsed : not big upatke : only lfet peerby
cities are key actors that need to explicitly adress these two issues, platforms doing whatver they want will yiled lowering inelaity and carbon foortprint
15:40 - 15:55 Keynote: Mark Graham (University of Oxford)
human labor that powers platform : research in africa and south east asia : taxi driving, cloud work
research made him understand what's harmful and exploitative and trends working everywhere . What could we do differnelty
keey enablers and constituent parts of platfrom eocnomy and what's going wrong :
70 millions people signed in to find work
- tehcnological enabler s: internet, bring into beeing a planetary labour market
example : in rural north uganda : train machine learning algorythms
-social : demand amongst bsinees, workers for flexibility : independ
economic demand : pressure to cut cost to stay comptetive, supply : underemployed looking for jobs
-political : weekend trad eunions, deregulation, shift risk form employers and state to workers
what's wrong :
-lack of aaccountability for platforms : south africa : accunt deactivated ofr inactivity : regulator : should be treatd as employee : uber : no :
lack of structural power for workers : huhe oversupply of labour upwork : more registered than jobs , signifcant spatial fragmentation of work ; workers powerless to dfend their rights : 18h a week spent looking for work : loose sleep : precarity , vulnerability no choice but to do the jobs given to them,
rent-seking platform s : power lies with those who own the means of distrbituion or computation (not production) :
opacity of production networks : how can push for change if ou don't know why you're doing what you're doing?
if platforms have helped people find work, enablers and isues what we have right now is neither desirable nor inevitable
more effective scalra/spatial ccountability : be accountable in local jurisdictions : step up efforst on regulatory nottlenecks : regulators have transnational power where platforms are located
- more effective horizontal collaboration : not in unions : relia on proximity : nothing for cloud workers
democratic ownership : platform coopeatives
more transparency in production networks : fairwork foundation : independent monitoring and scoring system : to influence consumers and clients who can exart influence on how platform economy is run
5 principles : fair pay, fair conditions, fair contracts, fair management, fair representation
producing annual ranking, cases of platform willing to change theirpolicy to get better score
transprancy and consumer pressure : a way to change platforms for now.
potential sources of power and leverage : workers, conumers, platforms and regulators.
Mark : workers not self-eployed a lot of misclassification : courts all over the world are ruling it's bogus. They are human beings who are working for less than minimum wages, surely it's a problem, working in dnagerous conditions, we shouldn't sya it's their own risk, their own respondibility. Risk put all on the back of workers
. They deserve a minim set of rights because of the work they are doing for other people and for the companies.
: association to mo itor, reward to the companies?
A mark : at first thought we'd just have a certification scheme, undertsood we wouldnt give many so league table appraoch. Pirnciples co-created with workers and platforms. Allow thes epriciples to evolve, as long as platform economy
Early 2019 launchin in south africa
Q: possibility to leverage benefits : which platforms are more promising : is about the paltform : the bsuiness model? the community? what are the factors?
A: bOTH, certain sectors where it's going to be a ot harder when we think about crabon impact, so in ridehailing : lyft much better at responding of issues on workers problems
AirBnB : tethered on disocurse of public good but fees are much lower than uber. It's a mixed bag. difference between cloud work and sharing eocnomy : done offline: supplemental earners . Diversrity on how workers are relating to the platform , which has an impact on workers satisfaction
Q :data problem role of cities to force to get transparent data?
Marl : should be condition to operate in cities
J : seeing moves in that direction , really on the defensive about this, central and key to collaboration, it can't be inspectors knwocking on doors. Access to the data for carbon footprint : impossible to stdy without access to their data.
Transdev : venture cpaitalists : platforms can be bought by VC. presurce VC
table : want to be bought by bigger company and want to make sure they get a better score : more ethical
J : monopoly psoitions with platforms being unlikly to be purchased , that process unlikely to happen
M : can look for good practices in subsectors, point them to bigger platforms
15:55 - 16:00 Wrap-up by Mayo Fuster :
- how far this research connect with necesssities cities point out : importance of accessibility of data . At summit :worked on topic to get data . without data : impossible to know the impact
- criteria for definisng qualties for platforms : cities can not only regulate in sense of restrincting , have power to promote : cities lack resources and criteria to differentiate platforms
Mayo Fuster Morell
Director Research on collaborative economy
Internet Interdisciplinary Institute of the Open University of Catalonia
Chestnut Hill United States of America
Professor of Sociology
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Cristina Tajani, Mayo Fuster Morell, Tom LLewellyn, Udo Kock, Carlos Moreno, Juliet Schor, Mark Graham,
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